Unrestricted Submarine Agreement

On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson, before a joint meeting of Congress, filed a declaration of war against Germany. Wilson cited the violation of the German agreement to suspend the indefinite war of submarines in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean and his attempts to induce Mexico to form an alliance against the United States as grounds for the declaration of war. On April 4, 1917, the U.S. Senate voted in favor of the decision to declare war on Germany. Parliament agreed two days later. December 1917, the United States Austria-Hungary declared war. After Germany resumed the submarine war on 1 February 1917, countries attempted to limit or even eliminate submarines. Instead, the London Declaration required submarines to comply with price rules. These rules did not prohibit the arming of traders,[7] but were reported by contacts with submarines (or looters) who de facto made them naval auxiliaries and dismantled the protection of price rules.

[8] As a result, submarine restrictions have become virtually unnecessary. [7] While such tactics increase the submarine`s effectiveness and improve its chances of survival, some [9] consider them a violation of the rules of war, especially when used against neutral ships in a war zone. In 1916, the Germans carried out two merchant submarines that could be used as blockade runners. The aim was to use them to transport quality goods to neutral nations such as the United States, which maintained strict neutrality and were willing to trade with Germany as with any other nation. The first of these ships, Germany, sailed in the summer of 1916 and positively influenced American public opinion. In the fall of the same year, she embarked on an equally successful second trip. His sister, Bremen, was less fortunate. she disappeared during her maiden voyage, the cause of her unknown loss. The submarine war resumed in February 1917 and the British began the convoy in September 1917. The heaviest losses were recorded in April 1917, when the submarines sank a record 881,027 tons.

[59] At the beginning of this period, British Merchant Marine had a total fleet of 21 million TJBs. In six months of unrestricted submarine warfare, the submarines sank 3.4 million tonnes of Allied navigation, which did little to crush the British merchant fleet; While new construction and seized vessel additions more than offset this loss. On the other hand, neutrals such as Norway and the Netherlands had been severely insulted and brought the United States to the brink of war. This failure and the various restrictions imposed on the submarine in the Atlantic region largely halted the campaign, although it continued with little handicap in the Mediterranean and elsewhere, where there was less chance of obtaining neutral support. On 1 February, Germany had 105 operational submarines: 46 in the deep-sea fleet; 23 in Flanders; 23 in the Mediterranean; 10 in the Baltic Sea; and 3 in Constantinople. The new vessel provided at least 120 submarines despite losses for the remainder of 1917. The campaign was initially a great success, with nearly 500,000 tonnes of shipments being poured in February and March, and 860,000 tonnes in April, when shipments of wheat from Britain were reduced to six weeks. In May, losses exceeded 600,000 tons, in June 700,000.